Dr Azwianewi Makhado

PhD  (UCT)

Dr Azwianewi (Newi) Makhado's BSc Hons project at the University of Venda looked at the current status and potential of ecotourism at Albasini Conservation area in Venda.  After that, Newi explored the sub-Antarctic region, spending 15 months on the Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island) working on the Pinniped Monitoring Programme (seal group) with Professor M.N Bester of the Mammal Research Institute at the University of Pretoria. On his return, he furthered his studies, registering for a MSc studying the diet of fur seals at the Marion island. His next step was to join a joint project between the Animal Demographic Unit (ADU) at UCT and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), for a PhD focusing on investigating of the impact of fur seals on the conservation status of seabirds at the Prince Edward Islands and off western South Africa. The study aimed to address the extent of adverse interaction between seabirds with an ever-increasing population of seals off the coast of South Africa and Southern Indian Ocean.

In 2004, Newi was permanently employed by DEA, working with Dr Rob Crawford who has since retired. He has taken over Dr Crawford's role as a Specialist Scientist: Seabirds and leads the Top Predator program at the department. Since joining the research team at DEA, Newi has represented South Africa at both CCAMLR and ACAP in international meetings. He recently spent three and half months at the Antarctic peninsula on CCAMLR related expedition collecting data on the three penguins species breeding at the area. Newi serves as Board Director at SANCCOB, and is an Honorary Research Affiliate of the FitzPatrick Institute. 

Newi's interest has been conservation of marine top predators especially seabirds and mammals and their role as indicator of ecosystem change and functioning. Also of interest is the development of conservation tool for management and conservation of Marine Top predators.

Current MSc student:
Farisayi Dakwa: The Influence of ecosystem variability on demography and reproductive performance of two species of Eudyptes penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion Island (Co-supervisor: Peter Ryan)



Campbell KJ, Steinfurth A, Underhill LG, Coetzee JC, Dyer BM, Ludynia K, Makhado AB, Merkle D, Rademan J, Upfold L, Sherley RB. 2019. Local forage fish abundance influences foraging effort and offspring condition in an endangered marine predator. Journal of Applied Ecology 56 (7): 1751-1760

Crawford RJM, Sydeman WJ, Thompson SA, Sherley RB, Makhado AB. 2019. Food habits of an endangered seabird indicate recent poor forage fish availability off western South Africa, ICES Journal of Marine Science 76 (5): 1344- 1352, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsz081

Krafft BA, Bakkeplass KG, Berge T, Biuw M, Erices JA, Jones EM, Knutsen T, Kubilius R, Kvalsund M, Lindstrøm U, Macaulay G. Renner A, Rey A, Søiland H,  Wienerroither R,  Ahonen, H, Goto J, Hoem  N, Huerta M, Höfer J, Iden O, Jouanneau W, W, Kruger, L, Liholt, H, Lowther, A, Makhado A.B, Mestre M, Narvestad A, Oosthuisen C, Rodrigues J, Øyerhamn R. 2019. Report from a krill focused survey with RV Kronprins Haakon and land-based predator work in Antarctica during 2018/2019. Rapport fra havforskningen.

Preston GR, Dilley BJ, Cooper J, Beaumont J, Chauke LF, Chown SL, Devanunthan N, Dopolo M, Fikizolo L, Heine J, Henderson S, C.A. Jacobs, F. Johnson, J. Kelly, A.B. Makhado, C. Marais, J. Maroga, M. Mayekiso, G. McClelland, J. Mphepya, D. Muir, N. Ngcaba, N. Ngcobo, J.P. Parkes, F. Paulsen, S. Schoombie, K. Springer, C. Stringer, H. Valentine, R.M. Wanless and P.G. Ryan. 2019. South Africa works towards eradicating introduced house mice from sub-Antarctic Marion Island: the largest island yet attempted for mice. Island invasives: scaling up to meet the challenge. 62: 40.

Vanstreels R, Pichegru L, Pfaff MC, Snyman A, Dyer BM, Parsons NJ, Roberts DG, Ludynia K, Makhado A and Pistorius PA. 2019. Seashell and debris ingestion by African penguins, Emu - Austral  Ornithology, DOI: 10.1080/01584197.2019.1659105


Crawford, RJM, Dyer, BM, Geldenhuys, L, Oosthuizen, WH, Makhado AB. 2018. Seabird breeding populations decrease along the arid coastline of South Africa’s Northern Cape province

Krafft BA, Lowther A, Macaulay G, Chierici M, Biuw M, Renner A, Klevjer TA,Øyerhamn R, Cárdenas CA, Arata J, Makhado A, Reiss C and Bergstad OA. 2018. Development of methods relevant to feedback management (FBM) for the krill fishery. WG-EMM-18/08, 16 pp.

Makhado, A, P. Koubbi, A.D. Lowther, F. D’Ovidio, R. Reisinger, P. Pistorious, R. Crawford, P. Trathan and S. Grant. 2018. The Expert Group on 'Pelagic spatial planning of the sub-Antarctic areas of Planning Domains 4, 5 and 6. SC-CAMLR-XXXVII/07

Makhado, AB, Crawford, RJM, Dias, MP, Dyer, BM, Lamont, T, Pistorius, P, Ryan, PG, Upfold, L, Weimerskirch, H, Reisinger, RR. 2018. Foraging behaviour and habitat use by Indian Yellow-nosed Albatrosses (Thalassarche carteri) breeding at Prince Edward Island) Emu-Austral Ornithology 1-10

Reisinger RR, Raymond B, Hindell MA, Bester, MN, Crawford RJM, Davies D, de Bruyn JN, Dilley BJ, Kirkman SP, Makhado AB, Ryan PG, Schoombie S, Stevens K, Sumner MD, Tosh CA, Wege M, Whitehead TO, Wotherspoon S, Pistorius PA. 2018. Habitat modelling of tracking data from multiple marine predators identifies important areas in the Southern Indian Ocean. Diversity and Distributions 24 (4), 535-550


Carpenter-Kling, T, Dyer, BM, Makhado, AB and Pistorius, PA. (2017). Plumage aberrations in Macaroni Penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Biology 1-5.

Carpenter-Kling, T, Handley, J M, Green, D B, Reisinger, R R, Makhado, A B, Crawford, R J, and Pistorius, P A (2017). A novel foraging strategy in gentoo penguins breeding at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Marine Biology 164(2), 33.

Crawford, R.J., Makhado, A.B. and Oosthuizen, W.H. 2017. Bottom-up and top-down control of the Benguela ecosystem's seabirds. Journal of Marine Systems.

Pistorius P, Hindell M, Crawford R, Makhado A, Dyer B and Reisinger R. (2017) At-sea distribution and habitat use in king  penguins  at  sub-Antarctic  Marion  Island. Ecology and Evolution 7: 3894- 3903. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2833

Sherley RB, Ludynia K, Dyer BM, Lamont T, Makhado AB, Roux JP, Scales KL, Underhill LG, Votier SC (2017). Metapopulation tracking juvenile penguins reveals an ecosystem-wide ecological trap. Current Biology 27(4), 563-568.


Crawford RJM, RM Randall, TR Cook, PG Ryan, BM Dyer, R Fox, D Geldenhuys, J Huisamen, C McGeorge, MK Smith, L Upfold, J Visagie, LJ Waller, PA Whittington, CG Wilke, AB Makhado 2016. Cape cormorants decrease, move east and adapt foraging strategies following eastward displacement of their main prey. African Journal of Marine Science, 38(3), 373-383.

Rollinson, D P, Wanless, R M, Makhado, A B and Crawford, R J M 2016. A review of seabird bycatch mitigation measures, including experimental work, within South Africa’s tuna longline fishery. IOTC-2016-SC19 Rev_1.

Schoombie, S, Crawford, RJM., Makhado, AB., Dyer, BM, and Ryan, PG. 2016. Recent population trends of sooty and light-mantled albatrosses breeding on Marion Island. African Journal of Marine Science 38(1), 119-127.

Whittington, PA, Crawford, RJ, Martin, AP, Randall, RM, Brown, M, Ryan, PG, Dyer, BM, Harrison, KH, Huisamen, J, Makhado, AB and Upfold, L, 2016. Recent Trends of the Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) in South Africa. Waterbirds 39(sp1): 99-113.

2015 - 2011

Crawford RJM, Makhado AB, Whittington PA, Randall RM, Oosthuizen WH and Waller LJ (2015) A changing distribution of seabirds in South Africa - the possible impact of climate and its consequences. Front. Ecol. Evol. 3:10. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2015.00010

Constable, AJ, Melbourne-Thomas, J, Corney, SP, Arrigo, KR, Barbraud, C, Barnes, DKA, Bindoff, NL, Boyd, PW, Brandt, A, Costa, DP, Davidson, AT, Ducklow, HW, Emmerson, L, Fukuchi, M, Gutt, J, Hindell, MA, Hofmann, EE, Hosie, GW, Iida, T, Jacob, S, Johnston, NM, Kawaguchi, S, Kokubun, N, Koubbi, P, Lea, M-A, Makhado, A, Massom, RA, Meiners, K, Meredith, MP, Murphy, EJ, Nicol, S, Reid, K, Richerson, K, Riddle, MJ, Rintoul, SR, Smith, WO, Southwell, C, Stark, JS, Sumner, M, Swadling, KM, Takahashi, KT, Trathan, PN, Welsford, DC, Weimerskirch, H, Westwood, KJ, Wienecke, BC, Wolf-Gladrow, D, Wright, SW, Xavier, JC and Ziegler, P. 2014. Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12623

Crawford RJM, Makhado AB, Whittington PA, Randall RM, Oosthuizen WH and Waller LJ. 2014 Winners and losers – responses to recent environmental change by South African seabirds that compete with purse-seine fisheries for food, Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology, 85:2, 111-117, DOI:10.2989/00306525.2014.955141

Pichegru, L, Ludynia, K, Makhado, AB, McInnes, A, Moseley, C, Robinson, K, Sherley, R, Steinfurth, A, Waller, L and Crawford, RJM., 2014. Insufficiently precautionary management of South Africa’s purse-seine fishery for conservation of the African Penguin. FISHERIES/2013/SWG-PEL/ICTT/4.

Sherley RB, Barham PJ, Barham BJ, Crawford RJM, Dyer BM, Leshoro TM, Makhado AB, Upfold L and Underhill LG. 2014. Growth and decline of a penguin colony and the influence on nesting density and reproductive success. Population Ecology 56: 119–128.

Crawford RJM, Randall RM, Whittington PA, Waller L, Dyer BM, Allan D, Fox C, Martin PA, Upfold L, Visagie J, Bachoo S, Bowker M, Downs CT, Fox R, Huisamen J, Makhado AB, Oosthuizen WH, Ryan PG, Taylor R, Turpie JK. 2013. South Africa’s coastal-breeding white-breasted cormorants: population, trends, breeding season and movements, and diet. African Journal of Marine Science 35:4, 473-490.

Makhado AB, Bester MN, Somhlaba S and Crawford RJM. 2013. The diet of the subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis at Marion Island. Polar Biol 36:1609–1617.

Makhado AB, Crawford RJM, Waller LJ and Underhill LG. 2013. An Assessment of the impact of predation by Cape Fur Seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on seabirds at Dyer Island, South Africa. Ostrich, 84:3, 191-198.

Thiebot J-B, Cherel Y, Crawford RJM, Makhado AB, Trathan PN and Bost C-A. 2013. A space oddity: geographic and specific modulation of migration in Eudyptes penguins. Plos One 8: e71429.

Crawford RJM, Dyer BM, Geldenhuys D, Makhado AB, Randall RM, Upfold L, Visagie J and Waller L 2012. Trends in numbers of Crowned Cormorants in South Africa, with information on diet. African Journal of Marine Science 34: 411–424.

Crawford RJM and Makhado AB. 2012. South Africa’s seabirds in dire straits. African Birdlife: 34.

Koubbi P, Crawford RJM, Alloncle N, Ameziane N, Barbraud C, Besson D, Bost C-A, Delord K, Duhamel G, Douglass L, Guinet C, Hosie G, Hulley PA, Irisson J-O, Kovacs KM, Lagabrielle E, Leslie R, Lombard A, Makhado A, Martinez C, Mormede S, Penot F, Pistorius P, Pruvost P, Raymond B, Reuillard E, Ringelstein J, Samaai T, Tixier P, Verheye HM, Vigetta S, von Quillfeldt C, Weimerskirch H. 2012. Estimating the biodiversity of Planning Domain 5 (Marion and Prince Edward Islands - Del Cano - Crozet) for Ecoregionalisation. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources WG-EMM- 12/33 Rev.

Taylor, FE, Ryan, PG, Makhado, AB, de Bruyn, PJN, Weimerskirch, H, Crawford RJM, Bester, MN, Delord, K, Tosh CA and Arnould JPY. 2012. The seasonal distribution and habitat use of marine top predators in the southern Indian Ocean. In: Habitat of marine top predators. Southern Indian Ocean Regional Workshop to Facilitate the Description of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) 30 July - 3 August 2012 - Flic en Flac, Mauritius.

Crawford RJM, Altwegg R, Barham BJ, Barham PJ, Durant JM, Dyer BM, Geldenhuys D, Makhado AB, Pichegru L, Ryan PG, Underhill LG, Upfold L, Visagie J, Waller LJ and Whittington PA. 2011. Collapse of South Africa’s penguins in the early 21st  century: a consideration of food availability. African Journal of Marine Science 33: 139–156.


Borst C-A, Cherel Y, Crawford RJM, Dyer BM, Jouventin P, Makhado AB, Otley O, Weimerskirch H, Woehler E, Wolfaardt A. 2010. Southern Rockhopper Penguin – Indian Ocean sites. In: Rockhopper Penguins a plan for research and conservation action to investigate and address population changes. BirdLife International, Great Britain. 96−102.

Altwegg R, Barham BJ, Barham PJ, Crawford RJM, Dyer BM, Geldenhuys D, Leshoro TM, Makhado AB, Parsons N, Pichegru L, Sherley R, Underhill LG, Upfold L, Visagie J and Waller L. 2009. Report on monitoring of African Penguins at colonies around which purse-seine fishing was disallowed or permitted in 2008, with early information for 2009. MCM/2009/SWG-PEL/16: 1–49.

Crawford, R.J.M., Whittington P.A., Martin A.P, Tree, A.J. and Makhado, A.B. 2009. Trends of seabirds breeding in South Africa’s Eastern Cape, and the possible influence of anthropogenic and environmental change. Marine Ornithology 37: 159–174.

Makhado AB, Crawford RJM, Underhill LG, Meÿer MA, Wilke C. 2009. The efficacy of culling seals seen preying on seabirds as a means of reducing seabird mortality. African Journal of Ecology 47: 335-340.

Crawford, RJM, Makhado, AB, Upfold, L and Dyer, BM. 2008. Mass on arrival of Rockhopper Penguins at Marion Island correlated with breeding success. African Journal of Marine Science 30: 185– 188.

Makhado, AB, Bester, MN, Kirkman, SP, Pistorius, PA, Ferguson, JWH, Klages, NTW. 2008. Prey of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at Marion Island. Polar biology 31: 575-581.

Mulaudzi TW, Hofmeyr GJG, Bester, MN, Kirkman, SP, Pistorius, PA, Jonker, FC, Makhado, AB, Owen, JH and Grimbeek RJ. 2007. Haulout site selection by southern elephant seals at Marion Island. African Zoology 43(1): 25-33.

Bester, MN, Hofmeyr, GJG, Kirkman, SP Chauke, LF, de Bruyn, PJN, Ferreira, SM, Makhado, AB, Maswime, TAM, Mcintyre, T, Mulaudzi, TW , Munyai, FM, Pistorius, PA, Radzilani, PM, Ramunasi, AJ, Tshitabane, NH and Wilkinson, IS. 2006. The leopard seal at Marion Island, vagrant or seasonal transient? South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36(2): 195-198.

Hofmeyr, GJG, Bester, MN, Makhado AB and Pistorius PA. 2006. Population change of subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island ready. South African Journal of Wildlife Research: 36(1): 55–68.

Makhado, AB, Crawford, RJ and Underhill, LG. 2006. Impact of predation by Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on Cape gannets Morus capensis at Malgas Island, Western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 28 (3 and 4): 681-687.

Kirkman, SP, Bester, MN, Makhado, AB and Pistorius, PA. 2003. Female attendance behaviour of Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island. Afr. Zool. 38:402-405.

Crawford, RJ, Cooper, J, Dyer, BM, Greyling, MD, Klages, NTW, Ryan, PG, Petersen, SL, Underhill, LG, Upfold, L, Wilkinson, W, De Villiers, MS Du Plessis, S, Du toit, M, Leshoro, TM, Makhado, AB, Mason, MS, Merckle, D, Tshingana, D, Ward, VL and Whittington, PA. 2003. Population of the surface nesting seabirds at Marion Island. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 25: 427-440.

Hofmeyr, GJG, De Maine, M, Bester, MN, Kirkman, SP, Pistorius PA, and Makhado, AB. 2002. Entanglement of pinnipeds at Marion Island, 1996-2000. Aust Mammal 24: 141-146.

Kirkman, SP, Bester, MN, Hofmeyr, GJG, Pistorius PA, and Makhado, AB. 2002. Pup growth and maternal attendance patterns in Subantarctic fur seals. Afr. Zool. 37: 13-19.

Papers presented in scientific working groups

Crawford, RJM, Ludynia, K, Makhado AB, McInnes, A Moseley, C, Pichegru, L, Robinson, K, Sherley, R, Steinfurth A and Waller L. 2013. Insufficiently precautionary management of South Africa’s purse- seine fishery for conservation of the African Penguin. Pelagic Scientific Working Group (PSWG) and Island Closure Task Team (ICTT )Makhado AB, LJ Waller, J Visagie, L Upfold, R Sherley, A Steinfurth, L Pichegru, A McInnes, C McGeorge, D Geldenhuys, R Fox, BM Dyer, RJM Crawford. 2013. Recent trends in numbers of African penguins breeding in South Africa. ICTT.

Makhado, A.B., Strauss V. and Crawford, R.J.M. 2007. Trends in numbers of African Penguin chicks received by SANCCOB as a result of being orphaned through abandonment by parents, 2001-2006. STG document.

Waller LJ, Chesselet Y, Crawford RJM, Dyer BM, Makhado AB, Meÿer MA, Nel P, Oosthuizen WH, Seakamela SM, Upfold L, Visagie J, Wheeler MJ. 2013. A worsening environment off South Africa’s north-west coast for marine top predators that feed on anchovy and sardine. ICTT and Top Predator Scientific Working Group (TPSWG)